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Home  >>  Products  >>  Abrasion  >>  Sutherland Ink Rub Tester

SUTHERLAND® 2000 Ink Rub Tester


SUTHERLAND® has been the industry standard in abrasion testing since 1951 and the instrument used in establishing the original ASTM D5264, ASTM F1571 & TAPPI T830

Sutherland Ink Rub Tester

The tester is a motor-driven instrument for moving a weighted test strip over a printed specimen through an arc. The SUTHERLAND® 2000™ Rub Tester, the industry standard for decades, has recently undergone some significant changes to enhance its utility and reliability.

Combined with a new ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) recommended practice for its use, the Tester is in an excellent position to enjoy even more widespread use in the coming years. The result of this work is an affordable abrasion-testing instrument that retains all the features that made it an industry standard plus improvements that ensure it will remain the industry standard in the new millennium.

Illustrated is the SUTHERLAND® Rub Tester showing two-pound and four-pound weights to which test specimens are attached and the scoring device. The upper receptacle of the timer is for remote timer control. The lower receptacle is the same voltage as the instrument. 110 volts single phase is standard. 220 volts optional at extra cost.

 

Features

  • Precision Accuracy - Tolerances as close as 1/1000th, All weights are within +/- 3 grams.
  • More Horsepower - Full 1/12 H.P. rating. Our motors are never hidden.
  • Quality Construction - Our parts are chrome-plated solid brass, Stronger than steel or aluminum. Every instrument is hand-crafted
  • Market Lifespan - Industry Standard for 60+ Years. Original machines still in use today. Optional upgrading of models available
  • Wide Test Variety - 21 stroke Wet Smear test. 42, 85 & 106 speed strokes. Custom speeds available
  • Heated Weights - Solid 304 stainless steel. Silicon pad included. Fully adjustible temperature range

The SUTHERLAND® 2000™ Rub Tester motor now has four speeds. The first speed (21 cycles per minute) is half the speed of the older models; which will make the "wet" tests, and tests using under 5 strokes easier to perform. The second speed (42 cycles per minute) and third speed (85 cycles per minute) are the same as the older models, while the fourth speed (106 cycles per minute) is faster. These new improvements allow the customer the ability to customize the testing procedure to their individual product yet maintain the ability to duplicate a procedure used by someone with an older model unit. The higher speeds will reduce the long test times needed for certain types of substrates (plastics, UV varnishes, printed films, etc.) The SUTHERLAND® 2000™ Rub Tester incorporates a digital counter with a fiber optic sensor to ensure the accuracy of the number of rubs desired and the instrument will shut off automatically after the correct number of strokes.

Changes to the control board programming will now allow the unit to stay on for 60 minutes before automatically turning off the LED display. Also, after the display has turned off, pressing any button will automatically display the last number of strokes entered, allowing time to record results without having to hold down the count button and re-enter the strokes with each test. A single mounting pad for the test strip is cut for the weight. It was found by using a two-inch (5cm) by four-inch (10cm) pad on the bottom of the weight that precision of the test increased (two-pound [907g] and four-pound [1814g] weights, scoring fixture, and hold down bracket are included).

Although the SUTHERLAND® 2000™ Rub Tester was originally designed to fill a need for testing the scuffing or rubbing resistance of inks used in the paper and paperboard industries; today it is being used by manufacturers of cleaning compounds, waxes, floor tile, film, and many other items. The test results are reproducible. The following tests may be made with the instrument: Dry Rub, Wet Rub, Wet Bleed or Transfer, Wet Smear, Functional Rub

Instructions for Use

Test Specimen - The test requires two pieces of stock, the test specimen and a test receptor. Cut a test specimen, approximately six by three inches. When printed area permits, the six-inch directions should be cut across the grain of the sheet, but must not cross pressed or cut scores. Prepare test receptor strips of material from the same shipment of stock used in the test sample. Cleanly cut 2x7-inch strips for the four-pound weight are prepared by placing the strip face up against the pin of the scoring device and scoring at the white dot positions to facilitate bending the strip to conform to the test block. To prepare samples for the two-pound weight, 2 x 5-1/4 inch strips are placed face up against the end pin of the scoring device and scored at the red dot position to facilitate bending the strip to conform to the test weight.

Dry Rub - Clip a 2x7-inch inch test strip to the four-pound test block, with the abrasive surface away from the rubber pad (facing the test specimen on base pad). Mount the test specimen securely (if printed material, mount with printed side up) on the rubber pad of the base plate securing with the hold down bracket. Using a camel-hair brush (not included), brush the test strip and the test specimen thoroughly before starting the test to remove any dust or foriegn material. Place the weights over the sample, making sure that the 2x4-inch rubber pad of the test block is over the area that is being tested, and that both surfaces are free of dirt. Preset the tester for ten strokes, or for any number of strokes selected as standard for a particular stroke.

Wet Rub - Mount the strips in the same manner as for a dry rub, using the two-pound test block. Preset the tester for one rub. Place three to six drops of water on the printed surface so that the test block will cover them. Place the block in position and immediately press the “start” button. After one stroke, examine both surfaces for color transfer. Repeat single strokes until ink failure is noted or the surface of the sample shows fuzz or abrasion.

Wet Bleed or Transfer - Mount a 2 x 5-1/4 inch strip on the two-pound test block with the felt or smooth side out, and saturate the blotter with water (an eyedropper is convenient). Place the wet blotter on the sample to be tested and leave in place for four minutes. Remove the block without rubbing and examine for ink transfer to the blotter.

Wet Smear - Use a water-saturated blotter on the two-pound block and actuate the tester for one stroke. Examine the blotter for color transfer. In cases where extreme water resistance is required, more rubs may be specified. An alternate procedure consists of mounting a 2 x 6-inch piece of 80x80 count bleached muslin on the two-pound test block over a blotter as specified above. This procedure has been found particularly useful since it eliminates the effects of surface abrasion on the blotting paper.

Functional Rub - Functional Rub is a term of embracing a number of miscellaneous uses for the SUTHERLAND® Rub Tester. Ink, which is acceptable under the outlined test procedures, may fail under exposure to foreign liquids or pastes. For example, certain inks might be tested to conform to specifications such as “one rub, Cod liver oil” or “three rubs, Jones Antacid Toothpaste.” In reporting functional rubs, the operator must specify the number of rubs, the time of contact before rubbing, and the special conditions and testing mediums employed.

Evaluation of Tests - A practical approach should be emphasized in test evaluation. Few, if any, inks will pass rubbing, wet or dry, without a slight transfer of color. Decisions on the suitability of ink are best made by running comparative tests, checking an acceptable sample at the same time and under the same conditions. A quantitative method of evaluating samples for rub damage has been developed. The test strip (receptor) is measured (zeroed) with a densitometer or a spectrophotometer before the rub test. After the test, the strip is measured again with either the change in density densitometer) or delta E (CIE L*a*b spectrophotometer) reported. The larger the number, the greater the rub damage. Consideration must be given to the time interval between printing and testing, particularly with slow-drying inks. Also prints should be protected from dust and dirt between printing and testing. An attempt should be made to use test samples which are representative of the run, i.e., eliminating the use of sheets with excessive anti-offset materials, or sheets taken from the top of a load which may have collected dust or foreign material.

Applications

Federal and local governments and industries have standards to promote safety and quality. Businesses that are in compliance with these standards help boost consumers’ confidence in their products and services. For this reason, the fabric industry and the makers of packaging labels regularly subject their products to rub testing.

Printed Labels & Rub Testing
For printed labels, the rub test gauges the amount of abrasion or scuff that may result during shipping, handling or storage. The test may be used for the labels of pharmaceutical products and medical devices, as well as the characters on keypads, for example. These labels must be legible and stand up to wear over time. One of the standard apparatus for performing ink tests on labels and printed materials is the SUTHERLAND® 2000™ Rub Tester. For label testing, the device puts a label in the machine, and, using the same device, attaches a similar label to a weight. By rubbing the two labels together at a specified speed for a specified period of time, the examiner can see how well the label resists damage.

Fabrics & Fastness to Rubbing
In the textile industry, a rub test determines the colorfastness of the color or dye in a fabric. It is an essential test. Fastness to rubbing also determines how well a fabric will resist stains. A test for fastness to rubbing can be performed on dry or wet fabric. The tester needs a small piece of the fabric and a white test cloth. The test cloth is put on the grating and stag using stainless steel wire. The cloth swatches are rubbed together to see how much color rubs off on the test cloth. The examiner then uses the grey scale to access the degree of change in color.

The Meaning Of Colorfastness
If a fabric has good colorfastness, it is likely that it will resist fading when washed. Good marks on the rub test also indicate that a fabric is durable. The rating scale is Grade 1 to Grade 5, with 1 being a high degree of color transfer and 5 being no color transfer. Factors affecting the outcome of this test are how well the fabric is made, its color, its darkness, and how it will be used. Ensure your product quality standards are hitting the mark. Our SUTHERLAND® 2000™ Rub Tester has been recognized as the industry’s standard for testing abrasion resistance. It offers 4 speeds, allowing you even greater flexibility. The Danilee brand has an established reputation for providing an exceptionally qualified rub testing product.

Accessories

Hold Down Bracket for the Sutherland 2000 Dual Ink Rub Tester

Hold Down Bracket - When there was a need to have the test specimen stay in position while performing tests, often times tape would be used. Taping for every test can become time-consuming and tedious. As a result, the hold down bracket was designed. This bracket allows the user to simply turn two wing nuts to secure or release the test specimen.

Pictured is the hold down clip installed on a machine.

   
Optional Heated Weight for the Sutherland 2000 Dual Ink Rub Tester

Heated Weight - This heated weight provides a uniform test for evaluating the "hot abrasion" resistance of printed cartons, labels, and periodicals. Where required, rub resistance specifications may now be based on the number of strokes at a given temperature as well as pressure.

   

Rubber Pads - In 1990 ASTM determined that the new style pad with its complete coverage of the weight provided more consistent and reliable results. Note: if changing from "old style" pads to the "new style" pads, new test procedures may be required as the "new style" pads require more rubs to achieve the same results as the "old style" pads. The reason for this is that the "new style" pads decreases the PSI (pounds per square inch) as the weight is being spread over a larger contact area. Pads should be changed a minimum of every six (6) months.

New Style Rubber Pads for the Sutherland 2000 Dual Ink Rub Tester Old Style Rubber Pads for the Sutherland 2000 Dual Ink Rub Tester
   
New Style - 3 Pads Old Style - 5 Pads
Each set of "new style" pads comes with a base pad
(2 - 5/8" x 6") and two (2) small pads (2" x 4").
Each set of "old style" pads comes with a base pad
(2 - 5/8" x 6") and four (4) small pads (1" x 2").

Sutherland Demo Video

 

Price List

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Prices listed in US dollars and subject to change    For more info Contact Us or call 954-946-9454    Request a Quote
Item Number Item Prices

Two-pound weight, four-pound weight, and a scoring fixture, calibration certificate, picture tutorial, and manual.

AB-0103 SUTHERLAND® 2000 Ink Rub Tester, 110 volt, 60 cycle, 1 phase, four speed $4,431.00
AB-0106 SUTHERLAND® 2000 Ink Rub Tester, 220 volt, 50 cycle 4,704.00
Note: Surge Protector is required with this product. (Not Included)
Optional Accessories
AB-0112 Heated weight (optional) 2 lbs 1,305.00
AB-0114 Heated weight (optional) 4 lbs 1,305.00
AB-0147 Stainless steel hold down bracket (to secure base test specimen) 116.00
Additional accessories and replacement parts are available.
Replacement Pads
AB-0121 New Style: 1 pad (base) 2-5/8" x 6" and 2 pads (weights) 2" x 4" 40.00
AB-0123 Old Style: 1 pad (base) 2-5/8" x 6" and 4 pads (weights) 1" x 2" 67.00
AB-0125 Base Pad (2 5/8" x 6" black rubber pad with adhesive back) - 3/box 74.00
AB-0129 Silicone Pad (for heated weight) 78.00
AB-0135 2 lb Weight Replacement 495.00
AB-0136 4 lb Weight Replacement 529.00
Note: For optimum results, pads should be changed every six months.
Reference: "The Improved SUTHERLAND® Rub Tester" by Dr. Bruce Blom, Senior Research Fellow, Mead Central Research Laboratories, Chillicothe, OH
Because of the simplicity of the tester, it is currently being evaluated as a means for assessing the drying, degree of cure, and solvent resistance of inks as part of ASTM's subcommittee D-01.56 on printing ink activities.



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