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Leneta Instruments

Leneta Leveling Test Blade

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No. LTB-2
Used in ASTM D4062 Test method for "Leveling of Paints by Drawdown Method" - This is a threaded steel rod that functions as a grooved doctor blade at any part of its circumference. It produces a film with parallel ridges and valleys in simulation of brush marks. Critical dimensions are indicated in Fig. 2. Plastic arms, in conjunction with straightedge guides, assure rectilinear movement of the blade. Test advantages compared with brushout application are speed, reproducibility, and a regular surface pattern that facilitates evaluation. It has been demonstrated that the leveling of films prepared in this manner correlates very well with brushout leveling.

The diagram shows alternate clearances, in equal width, of 300 and 100 μm (12 and 4 mils). Since the wet film thickness laid down by a doctor blade is about half its clearance, it can be expected that the Leneta Leveling Test Blade will apply alternate stripes about 150 and 50 μm (6 and 2 mils) thick. Thus the amplitude of the square wave formed at the instant of application will be approximately 50 μm (2 mils) and the approximate average wet film thickness will be 100μm (4 mils). The latter value multiplied by the nonvolatile fraction by volume, gives the equivalent dry film thickness. See instructions in this section.

Leneta Leveling Test Blade
Engineering Drawing
Details from the engineering drawing

 

Leneta Drawdown Levelness Standards

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No. LS-2
ASTM D 4062 - Evaluation of drawdowns prepared with the Leneta Leveling Test Blade is readily accomplished by visual comparison with Leneta Drawdown Levelness Standards. The method is fast and simple, and gives numerical values that have intrinsic and practical significance.

The Standards are 3-dimensional true scale replicas of drawdowns made with the Leneta Leveling Test Blade, using a series of nine paints ranging from extremely poor to good leveling. The primary replications are on durable metal plates from which duplicates are pressed in the form of 3 x 5 in.(76 x 125 mm) white vinyl panels. They are numbered 1 through 9 from poorest to best leveling. Perfect leveling is 10 and poorer than 1 is Zero. The number of the matching standard is the Leveling Value of the paint. Further information with the regard to the significance of these values is provided in section 9 of the appendix following this section.

Leneta drawdown Levelness Standards
Drawdown Levelness Standards under oblique light.

 

The NYPC Leveling Test Blade

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No. LTB-1
This is a drawdown blade with five pairs of successively shallower notches, whereby leveling is rated according to the separation or merger of the corresponding pairs of stripes.

It was developed by the New York Society for Coatings Technology (NYPC = New York Paint Club) and has the distinction of being the first practical laboratory device to provide numerical values for leveling.

Its use is mandatory in many U.S. government specifications. In recent years, it has been subjected to criticism in connection with emulsion paints, which has caused a shift in preference toward the newer leveling test blade. Nevertheless it has and will undoubtedly continue to perform valuable service.


NYPC Leveling Test Blade

NYPC Diagram
Engineering Diagram of the NYPC Leveling Test Blade

Instruction For Use
The NYPC Leveling Test Blade-Test Method
 
A. Equipment
  1. The NYPC Leveling Test Blade.
  2. The Leneta Adjustable Straight Edge.
  3. The Leneta Drawdown Plate–Regular.
  4. Drawdown Charts:
    Form 7B, black and white for light colors.
    Form WB, plain white for dark colors.
  5. Catch-Papers, Form CP-1.
  6. Pre-Shear equipment.
B. Preparation of Coating
  1. Stir thoroughly and adjust to 23°C.
  2. Pre-shear in accordance with one of the methods described and test immediately thereafter.
C. Application of Coating
  1. Fasten the Straight-Edge onto the drawdown plate in suitable position.
  2. Place a test chart on the drawdown plate in suitable position.
  3. Place blade at top of chart, open side toward operator and shoulder against Straight-Edge.
  4. Position the Catch-Paper.
  5. Place a suitable quantity (8-10 cc) of pre-sheared paint directly in front of the blade and draw down with a uniform speed of about 1 ft (30 cm) per second.
  6. Allow to dry at 23°C in a horizontal position with normal ventilation.
D. Rating the Drawdown
  1. After the drawdown is made the five pairs of stripes are considered as being numbered 0,2,4,6,8 respectively, from left to right.
  2. Ignore the leading and trailing edges and rate only the central 5 1/2" (140 mm) as indicated by the black area of Form 7B.
  3. Note the lower numbered pair that has failed to merged completely. The Leveling Value is that number, plus 1 if merger is about half. If all stripes have merge completely the Leveling Value is 10.

 

Leneta Drawdown Plates

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General Description: A glass clipboard is set firmly on a phenolic plastic panel and the whole apparatus is mounted on rubber bumpers to prevent sliding while in use. The drawdown surface is 6mm (1/4 inch) thick polished glass, equal in planarity to fine mirror glass. A steel clip holds the test chart or panel steady while the drawdown is made. These devices provide economical and convenient means for making drawdowns of uniform film thickness. In some cases they are superior to vacuum plates. They are easy to use, easy to keep clean, and will be found extremely helpful in every paint and coatings laboratory.

 
DP-1 Leneta Drawdown Plate
Glass surface: 9 x 15" (230 x 380mm)
For General Use With Leneta Charts and Panels
DP-3 Leneta Scrub Test Drawdown Plate
Glass surface: 7 x 20" (175 x 500mm)
For Drawdown NS on Leneta Scrub Test Panels

DP-1 Leneta Drawdown Plate


DP-3 Leneta Scrub Test Drawdown Plate

Typical drawdown with a Bird type applicator. Test application with a Dow Latex Film Applicator shown with DP-SE-3 Straight Edge
 
Leneta Straight Edges are designed for mounting on Leneta Drawdown Plates as guides to assure rectilinear movement of the applicator. Lateral positioning is adjustable to accommodate various applicator widths.

Catch-Papers Form CP-1 / Size: 3 x 8-1/2" (75 x 215mm)
These are thin lacquered papers that are placed under the bottom edge of a chart or panel to catch the surplus paint at completion of a drawdown, as shown in the preceding figures. Their sealed surface facilitates clean-up by preventing fast dry-out of paint on the applicator. Avoidance of this condition is of special importance when applying emulsion paints with multi-grooved applicators for sag or leveling tests. Such instruments present a particularly difficult cleaning problem, and must be kept scrupulously clean for accurate results.

 

Pre-Shear Methods and Equipment

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Practical methods for applying coatings develop high shear rates and stresses that strongly influence the degree of sagging and leveling. Since drawdown blades for measuring these characteristics develop relatively low rates of shear, they require that coatings be “Pre-Sheared” to simulate practical application. This can be accomplished by rapid mechanical mixing, or by forcing the liquid through a suitable hypodermic syringe. In general, the former is advisable with solvent type and the latter with aqueous coatings. Following is a description of specific equipment and procedures that have been found satisfactory in this connection.
 
I – Pre-Shear by Rapid Mixing – Solvent Coatings
A. Equipment
  1. Rotary power mixer, capable of 1300 and/or 3600 rpm
  2. Mixing can–Pint (500 mL) conventional paint can
  3. Mixing can–175 mL, Item No. PS-2
B. Procedure:
  1. Stir coating thoroughly with a spatula. Strain if necessary.
  2. Fill the mixing can approximately half.
  3. Attach the mixing paddle to the rotary power mixer.
  4. Set speed at 1300 rpm for the 175 mL can or 3600 rpm for the 500 mL (pint) can.
  5. Position paddle about 1/4 inches (6mm) from bottom of can.
  6. Mix 1 minute then promptly place about 8 mL of paint in front of the drawdown blade.

 

The Leneta Anti-Sag Meter

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Standard Range - Item No. ASM-1
Low Range - Item No. ASM-2
High Range - Item No. ASM-3
Medium Range - Item No. ASM-4

This is a drawdown blade with a series of notches of successively higher clearance. The notch clearance, is related to the degree of sagging and provides a numerical value referred to as the Anti-Sag Index. Three clearance ranges are available. Special ranges can be made to order. Development of this instrument was described in the Official Digest, and its versatility for rheological investigations demonstrated in a later article. The STANDARD Anti-Sag Meter is mandatory for several U.S. government specifications 3,4. Picture shows the Anti-Sag Meter in operation and illustrates various items of auxiliary equipment.

References - Official Digest (JCT), October 1962, Official Digest (JCT), January 1964, Fed. Test Method Std. No. 141a, Method 4494, ASTM Standard D3730-78, TT-E-508 Interior alkyd semi-gloss, TT-E-506 Alkyd gloss enamel, TT-P-1511 Interior latex gloss & semi-gloss, TT-I-564 Black stencil ink, ASTM Method D 4400
Medium Range Anti-Sag Meter Typical application procedure

Medium Range Anti-Sag Meter Typical application procedure

Technical Data
Item No. Range Used for: Notch Clearances*
ASM-1 Standard Solvent-borne Arch. coatings
Industrial O.E.M. coatings
High build coatings
Water-borne Arch. coatings
μm - 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300
Mils - 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
ASM-2 Low μm - 25 38 50 63 75 88 100 113 125 138 150
Mils - 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
ASM-3 High μm - 350 400 450 500 625 750 875 1000 1125 1250 1500
Mils - 14 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60
ASM-4 Medium μm - 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Mils - 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
*Wet film thickness is about half of clearance.
The Economy Scale Sagometer correlation is as follows:
Scale A = Standard, Scale B = Low, Scale C = High, Scale D = Medium

 
Anti-Sag Meter Test Method - Practical methods for applying coatings develop high shear rates and stresses that strongly influence the degree of sagging and leveling. Since drawdown blades for measuring these characteristics develop relatively low rates of shear, they require that coatings be “Pre-Sheared” to simulate practical application. This can be accomplished by rapid mechanical mixing, or by forcing the liquid through a suitable hypodermic syringe and needle. In general, the former is advisable with solvent type and the latter with aqueous coatings. Following is a description of specific equipment and procedures that have been found satisfactory in this connection.
 
A. Equipment
  1. The Leneta Anti-Sag Meter.
  2. The Leneta Adjustable Straight Edge.
  3. The Leneta Drawdown Plate–Regular.
  4. Drawdown Charts* Form 7B, black and white; for light colored paints. Form WB, plain white, for dark colored paints.
  5. Catch-Papers, Form CP-1.
  6. Pre-shear equipment.
    *With the Low Range Anti-Sag Meter use glass or flat metal panels.
B. Preparation of Coating
  1. Stir thoroughly and adjust to 23°C (73.5°).
  2. Pre-shear in accordance with one of the methods furnished and test immediately thereafter.
C. Application of Coating
  1. Attach the straight-edge onto the drawdown plate in suitable position.
  2. Place a test
    chart on the drawdown plate under the clip.
  3. Place Anti-Sag Meter on the chart, with it's
    open side toward operator and it's shoulder against the straight edge.
  4. Position Catch-Paper
  5. Place a suitable quantity (8-10mL) of pre-sheared paint directly in front of the
    blade and draw down uniformly at about 6" (150mm) per second.
  6. Promptly fasten the drawdown chart to a vertical surface, with stripes horizontal and left edge (thinnest stripe) at the top, and allow to dry in that position.
D. Rating the Drawdown
  1. Note the notch numbers marked on the Anti-Sag Meter and Identify the corresponding
    stripes accordingly.
  2. Ignore the leading and trailing edges, and observe only the central 5-1/2" (140 mm) of blade path corresponding to the black area of Form 7B.
  3. The lowest (thickest) stripe that does not touch the one below itself is referred to as the index stripe, and its notch number is the Anti-Sag Index of the paint.
  4. For more precise Anti-Sag Index, add to the Index stripe number the product of the post-index clearance step and a fractional degree to which it has failed to merge with the next lower stripe. The fraction is estimated in accordance with the following table:

Technical Data
Degree of Merger Fraction Unmerged
Complete 0
Somewhat more than half 0.25
Approximately half 0.50
Somewhat less than half 0.75

Typical Test Pattern w/ Form 7B
Typical Test Pattern w/ Form 7B

 

The Leneta Magnetic Spray Stand

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Item No. SS-1 - Laboratory spray stands are often unsteady devices, thickly coated with overspray. The Leneta Magnetic Spray Stand provides stability, tidiness, and general convenience. Its design is simple: two small, but powerful, pot magnets are mounted at one end of a curved steel rod. The other end of the rod is screwed into a heavy steel base. Overall height is approximately thirteen inches. Steel panels 6 x 12 inches and larger are held firmly during spraying and then easily removed. The magnets remain clean, being protected from over-spray by the panel. Other parts of the device are readily cleaned by soaking in paint remover or caustic solution.
 
Leneta Magnetic Spray Stand Alu-Card in position for spraying
 

Leneta Magnetic Spray Stand, No.SS-1,
showing a 6" x 12" steel panel in position
for spraying.

Alu-Card in position for spraying. It hangs from
a small peg on the steel adapter, steadied
by side arms to prevent it from blowing
off in the spray stream.

 

Alu-Card Adapters

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For use with the Magnetic Spray Stand - The Magnetic Spray Stand can be used with Alu-Cards or other non-magnetic panels by employing one of the steel adapters designed for that purpose. The picture above shows an adapter in use, and describes how it works. They are available in two sizes, corresponding to the standard sizes in which Alu-Cards are available.

Technical Data
Item Number Product Name For Panel Size
AD-1
Alu-Card Adapter, Size A 5-1/2 x 10" (140 x 254 mm)
AD-2 Alu-Card Adapter, Size G 3 x 5-1/2" (76 x 140 mm)

 

Non-Stick Leneta ™ Inter-Leaf Paper

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Protect your drawdowns by inserting Non-Stick Leneta™ Inter-Leaf Papers between charts when stacking, shipping, or storing. Leneta Inter-Leaf Papers are thin, specially treated, non-stick sheets that prevent your test applications from being marred by the effects of residual tack.

 

Leneta Paper-Testing Inks

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PC-TK-11: High Penetration for Coated Papers
PC-TK-21: Low Penetration for Uncoated Papers

PC-TK-11 and 21
For Evaluating Mottle, Holdout and Porosity of Coated and Uncoated Papers - These testing inks provide a simple and rapid way of monitoring batch-to batch variations in paper structure and porosity. Inks of both high and low penetrations are required because the penetration quality of the ink must be appropriate to the holdout of the paper surface being tested. Coated papers, being relatively high in holdout, require a high penetration ink to
obtain a sufficiently strong color and mottle pattern. Uncoated papers, being low in holdout, require a low penetration ink to avoid excessively strong color that would overwhelm any mottle or holdout distinctions.

Test Patterns

Examples of test patterns obtained using the two inks, demonstrating their specialized nature, are as follows:

Test Procedure: Spread the ink on the paper to be tested using a spatula or drawdown applicator (see TK-100 Applicator). After one minute remove the ink by first scraping off most of it with a straight edge, then wiping away the remainder carefully with a clean paper towel. The resultant test pattern is characterized visually for mottle and porosity. To obtain an instrumental value for porosity, measure the CIE-Y reflectances, or the densitometer values, of the stained and unstained areas, then calculate:

 
PC-TK-100: Applicator for Paper-Testing Inks - Constructed of aluminum, this low cost applicator is designed specially for use with Leneta Testing Inks. One edge has a 10 mil (250 μm) clearance and applies a 3 inch (75 mm) wide film. The opposite edge can be used as a convenient scraper. Dimensions: 5” x 2” x 1/8” (127mm x 51mm x 3mm).

 

Leneta ASTM Scrub & Staining Media

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WA-SC-1: Non-Abrasive Type used in ASTM Method D 3450, Test for Washability Properties
WA-SC-2: Abrasive Type used in ASTM Method D 2486, D 4213 and D 3450 Scrub Resistance & Washability Tests

Leneta-ASTM Scrub Media - These are aqueous dispersions of detergent, cellulosic thickener and preservative, made in conformance with and approved for use in the indicated ASTM methods. The abrasive type contains ground silica for accelerated erosion. The two compounds are representative of the detergent and abrasive character of commercial cleaning products. Because of the variable nature of their ingredients, The Leneta Company provides media adjusted and tested to assure batch-to-batch uniformity. Each container is fully identified by batch number and shipping date. The contents of unopened containers are guaranteed standard in performance for a year, which is highly conservative on the basis of observed package stability. WA-SC-1WA-SC-2

PC-ST-1: Pigmented Type used in ASTM Method D 3450, Test for Washability Properties


This is a finely ground dispersion of high jet carbon black in a blend of mineral oil and odorless mineral spirits.

It is specified in ASTM D 3450 to meet the laboratory requirement for a reproducible composition of matter, representative in a general way of soilants encountered in the field.

WA-ST-1

PC-ST-31: Penetrating Dye Type Recommended for ASTM Method D 3258, Test for Stain Resistance and Porosity


This is a proprietary composition of pigment and dark-colored dye dispersed in an organic liquid vehicle. When applied and then removed from a paint film, the intensity of the resultant stain indicates the degree of film porosity.
WA-ST-3

Both media have perfect package stability and are manufactured and control tested to assure batch to batch uniformity. Their usefulness extends not only to ASTM tests, but to any soil and stain removal test procedure.

 

Prices

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Prices subject to change    Prices listed in US dollars for domestic shipments within US, Canada, & Mexico only    Export orders require quotations - click here for a quote     For more info call us 1-800-762-2478 or 954-946-9454.
Item Number Product Description Pkg Desc. Package
Wt. lbs. approx.
Price
AP-LTB-2
Leneta Leveling Test Blade 1 Each
2
$998.00 Ea.
PC-LS-2
Drawdown Levelness Standards
Set
1
249.00 Ea.
PC-CP-1 Leneta Catch Papers, 1000 - 57.00
PC-CP-2 Leneta Catch Papers, (Special for use with DP-2 Drawdown Plate) 1000 - 59.00
AP-LTB-1
NYPC Leveling Test Blade
1 Each
1
820.00 Ea.
DP-DP-1
Leneta Drawdown Plate, Regular
1 Each
3 239.00 Ea.
DP-DP-3 Leneta Scrub Test Drawdown Plate
1 Each 5
294.00 Ea.
DP-SE-1 Leneta Adjustable Straight Edge, for use with standard drawdown plate DP-1
1 Each
2
96.00 Ea.
DP-SE-3
Leneta Adjustable Straight Edge, for use with scrub test drawdown plate DP-3 1 Each 2
102.00 Ea.
PC-PS-2
Pre-Shear Mixing Cans
5 per box
1
14.00 Box
PC-PS-3
Pre-Shear Plastic Syringes
50 per box
1
37.00 Box
AP-ASM-1
Anti-Sag Meter, Standard
1 Each
2
924.00 Ea.
AP-ASM-2
Anti-Sag Meter, Low Range
1 Each
2
924.00 Ea.
AP-ASM-3
Anti-Sag Meter, High Range
1 Each
2
924.00 Ea.
AP-ASM-4
Anti-Sag Meter, Medium Range
1 Each 2
924.00 Ea.
- - Anti-Sag Meter, Special Ranges
1 Each
2
P.O.R.
PC-SS-1
Magnetic Spray Stand
1 Each
13
272.00 Ea.
PC-AD-1
Alu-Card Adapter, Size A
1 Each
1
61.00 Ea.
PC-AD-2
Alu-Card Adapter, Size G 1 Each
1
48.00 Ea.
PC-IP-1K Non-Stick Leneta ™ Inter-Leaf Paper 8 5/8 x 11-1/4 219 x 286 - 106.00
PC-IP-1B Non-Stick Leneta ™ Inter-Leaf Paper 7 5/8 x 11-1/4 194 x 286 - 96.00
PC-IP-1C Non-Stick Leneta ™ Inter-Leaf Paper 7 5/8 x 10-1/4 194 x 260 - 89.00
PC-IP-1A Non-Stick Leneta ™ Inter-Leaf Paper 5 1/2 x 10 140 x 254 - 73.00
PC-TK-11
Testing Ink - High Penetration for Coated Papers 1/4 pint jar 4 65.00 Jar
PC-TK-21 Testing Ink - Low Penetration for Uncoated Papers 1/4 pint jar 4 65.00 Jar
PC-TK-100 Applicator for Paper-Testing Inks 1 Each 1 42.00 Ea.
WA-SC-1
Scrub Medium, Non-Abrasive Type
Pint jar
2
36.00 Jar
WA-SC-2
Scrub Medium, Abrasive Type
Pint jar
2 36.00 Jar
PC-ST-1 Staining Medium
1/4 pint jar
1
34.00 Jar
PC-ST-31
Staining Medium 1/4 pint jar
1
52.00 Jar
Ask for quantity break & inquire about items not listed



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