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Home  >>  Products  >>  Abrasion  >>  Wahability/Linear Test Equipment

Washability / Linear Test Equipment

Versatile machines that test wear, scrubbability, washability, breakaway & Kinetic frictions, and meets US EPA Protocol #01-1A, ASTM D2486, protocol in AS 4586-2013 for additional accelerated wear conditioning, as well as various other ISO, DIN and specific company standards.

Washability Machines

The Gardco Washability Machine / Linear Tester has been proven as the industry standard for testing wear, scrubbability, washability breakaway and kinetic friction. This work horse is designed, built and manufactured in the USA, and are used in all the major laboratories around the globe, with an emphasis on reliability and durability. All testing with this type of equipment involves moving one surface with respect to another under controlled conditions and determining any resulting change or interaction between the surfaces. This line spans the range from the simplest washability machine to the most sophisticated equipment providing force recording of test motion resistance. Such force measurement has the potential of eliminating subjective operator evaluations by quantifying many types.

Here are the models available:

  • Set Speed Model D10 is offered by Gardco as an improvement over existing washability machines. It is a single cycle rate (cyc/min) machine.
  • Variable Speed Models (DV) have all the features as the set speed models, plus variable speed, which allows accelerated testing. Each model has its own stroke length for its particular application. The stroke length is centered and shortened from both sides. Rate limits shown for all variable cycle rate (cyc/min) machines are factory set, but may be shifted for specific requirements. Instructions for this change are furnished with the unit.
  • The Variable Speed / Force Sensing Models (DVF) are basically the same machines as the variable speed machines except a force transducer is added to the drive fork linkage. Output from the force transducer is displayed in large numbers on the front of the machine. The display registers resistance to motion (a measurement proportional to friction) of the fork to the one-tenth pound. The Model D12VF, when fitted with the test sample tray serves as a laboratory machine. This model has the base cutout feature, which allows test to be made directly on surface on which machine is placed; such as a ship deck or mall floor. An extended drive fork (WA-2195) is required when tests are made through cutout base. All models come with standard drive fork, extended drive fork must be ordered separately. Stainless steel handles are attached to the ends of the housing to enhance portability for field use.

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Features for All Electronic Models

  • The base of all models is 0.25 inch thick aluminum plate. It is 16" deep for all models, 16" long for all D10 Models and 22" long for all other models. One-half of the depth of the machine supports all functional mechanisms and their housing. The front half of the base provides the working surface or area for product testing. The base is supported on one-half inch high feet to provide clearance for clamping test products at both ends and along the entire front edge of the base. Net Weight: (Approx. 40-50 pounds)
  • The desired number of cycles is set by hand simply by pressing the Up/Down key to the desired increment for each digit, a maximum setting of 9,999 can be achieved. On start of operation, the dial counts to the preset value and turns off the machine. The counter then may be manually reset to run the same count or the count may be changed.
  • All functional elements are mounted above the normal level for product testing and therefore are not subject to damage by accidental liquid spills.
  • Heavy gage brushed aluminum houses all functional components with only the drive fork bracket extending forward to carry the drive fork over the test area.
  • The drive fork is fabricated from 1/16" stainless steel.It is held in place by a bracket of the same material which is secured to linear bearings carried on accurately spaced parallel bars. Reciprocation of the drive fork assembly on the parallel bars is by a unique double chain and sprocket arrangement. Up to 25 lbs ( 11kg) load can be applied to the drive fork at one time. There are no belts, cables, springs or other such mechanisms in the drive chain requiring service or maintenance. The drive fork is adjustable vertically with respect to its drive bracket. In its lowermost position it is less than one-half inch above the test surface with the tray and glass plate in place. This relative low position minimizes the tendency of the carried surface to tilt in the direction of travel. The fork can be raised in half inch steps, inverted and further raised to accommodate test specimens up to two and a half inches thick without losing close proximity to the test surface.
  • Access to the component area is by removal of only two screws from the lid of the housing.
  • All controls and indicators are mounted on the front surface of this housing. The housing is eight inches high on fixed speed models and ten inches high on variable speed models.
  • Absolute linearity is obtained with unique drive system. Acceleration and deceleration is sinusoidal providing for the smoothest possible change in direction at the end of each stroke.
  • Design of the drive fork cradles accessories used in the test and permits them to simply be lifted free. There are, therefore, no rotational or other unbalancing forces imposed on such auxiliaries. They are "Free Floating" and self-leveling. There are three equally spaced holes in each of the tines of the drive fork. A test auxiliary can be placed in either of the three pairs of holes to accommodate positioning of the test specimen. The spacing also permits simultaneous cradling of three brush boxes, two abrasion boats or two sponge boxes for multiple specimen testing. Velocity of the drive fork is a function of stroke length as well as cycle rate.
  • Electric drives used in fixed speed models are right angle gearhead motors are totally enclosed, non-ventilated permanent split capacitor type. These ball bearing motors are rated for 115 volts, 60/50 Hz, continuous duty with a temperature rise of 40°C (104°F). (Machine cycle rate is based on 60 Hz operation.) The gear case is zinc alloy, grease filled, hardened steel worm with phenolic output gear and ball bearing output shaft. Electric drives used in variable speed models are right handle gearhead motors of totally enclosed non-ventilated 90 volt permanent magnet type. These ball bearing motors are rated for continuous duty with a maximum temperature rise of 40°C (104°F). The 115 volt motor speed controller is solid state, with constant torque speed regulation and a motor speed range of 10/1. The motor gear case is die cast aluminum, oil filled with hardened steel worm and bronze output gear.
  • The digital cycle counter is electrical and is energized through a switch from the drive linkage.
  • All electrical components of single rate model are fused for 2 amps while all variable rate model are fused for 3 amps. The fuse holder is located on the right side of the housing. An electrical diagram is located under the lid of each machine.
  • The motor speed control unit installed in all variable cycle rate models has a rated range of 10:1. Factory setting of both high and low limits are shown under "Characteristics" for each model. Internal adjustments permit changing these limits. There is interaction between these adjustments. Changing one will affect the other. The procedure for this rate limit change is furnished with operating instructions for each variable cycle rate unit.
  • Applications Include: Adhesives, Anodic Coatings, Carpeting, Cement, Ceramics, Coated Paper, Coated Plastics, Coatings, Industrial, Coatings, "Slip-Proof", Concrete, Fiberglas, Floor Coverings, Foils and Films, Glass, Lacquers, Leather, Linoleum, Marble, Metals, Paints (Architectural/Traffic), Paper, Paper Board, Plastics, Plating, Rubber, Textiles, Tile, Upholstery, Varnishes, Vinyls, Waxes, Wood, Etc.
Drive Fork Velocity for the Washability Machines The graph relating rate dial setting to cycles per minute and drive fork velocity in inches per second is representative of Models D10V and D10VF. The relationship for other models is similar except for the cycle rate - velocity ratio.

Technical Data

Technical Data
D10V (DV1) D12V D10VF (DVF)
Part Number: WA-2151 WA-2153 WA-2163 WA-2164 WA-2155
Stroke Length: 10" 10" 12" 12" 10"
Acceleration Distance: 1.1" - 1.5" 1.3" 1.2" 1.2" 1.2"
Cycles Per Minute: 37 6-60 5-50 5-50 6-60
Velocity, in./sec.: 14 2.3-23 2.2-22 2.2-22 2.3-23
Tray Size: 8" x 18" 8" x 18" 8" x 24" 8" x 24" 8" x 18"
Drive Fork Force Max lbs.: 24 45 45 45 45
Base Cutout: - - - -
Variable Speed: -
Force Sensing: - - - -
Recorder Option: - - - - -

Friction Measurement

There are two basic reasons for measuring friction. The first is to determine the “slipperiness” of a surface. The other may be of much greater importance. It is quantifying a change in a surface as it is subjected to cleaning or wear testing. A simplified classical definition of friction is: Whenever an object moves upon another, resistance offered to the motion is called FRICTION. Characteristics of friction between such object surfaces are:
  • It varies with respect to the nature of the surfaces.
  • It varies directly with pressure between the surfaces.
  • It is independent, within limits, of surface contact area.
  • It is independent, within limits, of rate of motion.
  • Static (starting or break-away) friction is always greater than kinetic (sliding or motion) friction.
  • Coefficient of friction is defined as the force required to move one surface over another divided by the weight on the surface. The coefficient of friction has a wide range. For example: greased metallic surfaces may be as low as 0.05, wet leather on metal 0.36 and dry leather on metal 0.56.

In order to measure friction between any two surfaces, one surface must be moved with respect to the other. The pressure or loading between the surfaces must be fixed and known. The force required to start the motion and to retain it in steady state must be determined.

Gardco linear motion test equipment with force measurement capabilities are ideally suited for measuring friction. Models with cut-out bases are designed for making measurements not only on prepared samples but also directly on the surface supporting the machine. The variable rate features of these models permit operating at a sufficiently low velocity so that kinetic energy and momentum factors may be neglected. A velocity of three to five inches per second is suggested when working with most surfaces. The force recorder is highly recommended for use in this measurement even though there is force indication on the machine panel. The recorder provides greater sensitivity and a high response record of force resistance throughout the machine cycle and for repeat cycles.

In order to provide a wide range of different surfaces and the loading on these surfaces, Gardco has produced an auxiliary weight for the abrasion boat and a modified sponge box to carry a much heavier weight. Both of these items are directly cradled by either the standard fork or extended machine drive fork.

Set Speed Model (D)

Model D10 is offered by Gardco as an improvement over existing washability machines. It is a single cycle rate (cyc/min) machine with all of the other advantages listed for the entire Gardco line of Linear Motion Test Equipment.

Washability Machine Model D10

Variable Speed Models (DV)

The DV1 are variable speed models that have all the features as the set speed models, plus variable speed, which allows accelerated testing. Possibly called for in future specifications.

Each model has its own stroke length for its particular application. The stroke length is centered and shortened from both sides. Rate limits shown for all variable cycle rate (cyc/min) machines are factory set, but may be shifted for specific requirements. Instructions for this change are furnished with the unit.

Click here to check out an article on the Protocol for the Evaluation of Bactericidal Activity of Hard, Non-porous Copper/Copper-Alloy Surfaces which uses the D10V for the testing.

Variable Speed Models

Variable Speed / Force Sensing Model (DVF)

The D10VF variable speed / force sensing models are basically the same machines as the variable speed machines except a force transducer is added to the drive fork linkage. Output from the force transducer is displayed in large numbers on the front of the machine. The display registers resistance to motion (a measurement proportional to friction) of the fork to the one-tenth pound.

Variable Speed Models


The following is a list of standards and methods of test that call for this type of equipment:

  • ASTM D1792 "Long Term Removability Properties of Emulsion Floor Polishes"
  • ASTM D2198 "Stain Removal from Multicolor Lacquers"
  • ASTM D4213 "Wet Abrasion Resistance of Interior Paints"
  • ASTM D2486 "Scrub Resistance of Interior Latex Flat Wall Paints"
  • ASTM D3206 "Standard Test Method for Soil Resistance of Floor Polishes"
  • ASTM D3450 Washability Properties of Interior Architectural Coatings & ASTM D4828
  • ASTM D4488 Standard Guide for Testing Cleaning Performance of Products Intended for use on Resilient Flooring and Washable Walls
  • ASTM D6279 Test Method for Rub Abrasion Mar Resistance of High Gloss Coatings, Military Specifications: MIL-C-3004, MIL-C-46057, MIL-E-11237, MIL-P-1334, MIL-P-15422
  • Rock Island Arsenal Specification RIX-268
  • Commonwealth of Penna. Specification No. W-4
  • Canadian Government Specification 26-G-3
  • FTMS 141, Method 6141, "Washability of Paints"
  • FTMS 141, Method 6142, "Scrub Resistance"
  • FTMS Method 536/6701
  • Federal Specifications: P-D-220, P-R-1760, P-W-155, T-1279,TT-P-26, TT-P-29, TT-P-30,TT-P-47, TT-P-508, TT-P-1932, TT-E-505, TT-E-506, TT-E-509, TT-C-535, TT-C-555
  • IEC62788-7-3, This test method is used for evaluation the abrsion of materials and coatings in photvoltaic modules or other solar devices.

Warranty - Gardco warrants the equipment of its manufacture against defects in materials and workmanship for a period of ninety days. Components in the equipment produced by others are warranted only to the extent of the warranty furnished by the producer of the component. The total responsibility of Gardco under this warranty is to replace any item of the equipment, determined by Gardco to be defective, within the warranty period. This warranty is void if Gardco determines that the equipment has been damaged under conditions or use beyond the limits covered by Gardco literature on the equipment. Any returns are the responsibility of the buyer and must first have the approval of the Paul N. Gardner Company.

Disclaimer - The information contained herein, or supplied by us or on our behalf in any other manner is based on data obtained by our own research and is considered accurate. However, NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED REGARDING THE ACCURACY OF THESE DATA, THE RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM THE USE THEREOF, OR THAT ANY SUCH USE WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY PATENT. This information is furnished upon the condition that the person receiving it shall make his own tests to determine the suitability thereof for his particular purpose.


Price List - D Manual VF V Manual

Prices listed in US dollars and subject to change    For more info Contact Us or call 954-946-9454    Request a Quote
Item Number Item Prices

WA-215111 - ASTM D2486 Accessory Package for 10" Machines: WA-2230 Lily Frame, WA-2205 Test Tray, WA-2235 Glass Plate, WA-2211 Brush Box, WA-2272 Nylon Stag Brush 5x4x13, PC-GP121-10N Gardco Scrub Test Panels and WA-2228 Brass Shims

WA-215118 - ASTM D4828 Accessory Package for 10" Machines: WA-2220 Sponge Box, WA-2222 Sponge, WA-2323 Sponge Box Weight (must be used with WA-2220 to equal 1Kg requirement), WA-2235 Glass Plate, WA-2205 Test Tray

WA-215121 - ASTM D3450 Accessory Package for 10" Machines: WA-2220 Sponge Box, WA-2222 Sponge, WA-2320 Sponge Box Weight (must be used with WA-2220 to equal 1.5Kg requirement), WA-2235 Glass Plate, WA-2205 Test Tray

WA-2151 D10, Basic Set Speed Model $8,269.00
WA-2171 D16 Basic Set Speed Model Was $9,000.00
Now $7,995.00
WA-2153 D10V, Variable Speed Model 9,643.00
WA-2163 D12V, Variable Speed Model 10,194.00
WA-2164 D12V, Variable Speed Model with Cut-Out Base 10,866.00
WA-2155 D10VF, Variable Speed and Force Model 13,040.00
ASTM and Accessory Packages
WA-215111 ASTM D2486 Accessory Package 1,779.00
WA-215118 ASTM D4828 Accessory Package 1,386.00
WA-215121 ASTM D3450 Accessory Package 1,398.00
15295 EPA Protocol 1-1A Accessory Package 1,923.00
Scrub Panels and Media
PC-GP121-10N Black scrub panel P121-10N, 100/box 225.00
PC-GP122-10N White scrub panel P122-10N, 100/box 242.00
100862124 Economy black scrub panel, 100/box 99.00
WA-B8129 Scrub Media, Abrasive, ASTM D2486, 1 pint 31.00
WA-B8130 Scrub Media, Non-Abrasive, ASTM D3450 1 pint 31.00
5098 ISO Standard Dirt, ECE 43, 1 gallon 148.00
Linear Motion Test Equipment Accessories - View Accessories
WA-2210 Brush Box 455.00
WA-2211 Same as above with Low Center of Gravity 455.00
WA-2220 Sponge Box 480.00
WA-2225 Abrasion Boat (same as Friction Boat) 562.00
WA-2195 Extended Drive Fork (for cut-out base models only) 525.00
WA-219105 Voltage Transformer 110-120V to 220-240V 258.00
WA-2320 Rectangular, Steel weight to replace weight for sponge box to achieve a total weight of 1500g to meet (ASTM D-3450) 467.00
WA-2323 Special additional sponge box weight for total of 1000g 445.00
WA-2324 Weight Tare Replacement for sponge box 2lb gross wt total 445.00
Brushes Available for Brush Box - View Accessories
WA-2262 Nylon Bristle Brush, ASTM, Aluminum Base, 5/4x13 Rows 267.00
WA-2264 Hog Bristle Brush, Aluminum Base, 5/4x13 Rows 191.00
WA-2272 Nylon Bristle Brush, ASTM, PVC* Base, 5/4x13 Rows 120.00
WA-2274 Hair Bristle Brush, PVC* Base, 5/4x13 Rows 120.00
WA-2276 Nylon Bristle Brush, PVC* Base, 5x12 Rows 120.00
WA-2278 Hair Bristle Brush, PVC* Base, 5x12 Rows 120.00
*A stainless steel weight shim is furnished with each PVC brush.
Sponges Available for Sponge Box - View Accessories
WA-2222 Sponge for Sponge Box (D-3450) 3.9" x 3.1" x 1.5" wet cut 10.00
WA-2322 Sponge for 1500g Sponge box (D-3450) 3.9"x 3.1"x 1.75" 11.00
WA-2336 Cut your own sponge from 1 .5" x 10" x 15" block (can be used with Brush Box) 28.00
WA-2337 Cut your own sponge from 2" x 10" x 15" block (can be used with Brush Box) 30.00
WA-2338 Cut your own sponge from 3" x 10" x 15"block (can be used with Brush Box) 47.00
- All Sponges are Fine Pore, Uncompressed, Wet Cut
Sponge Available for Brush Box - View Accessories
WA-2212 Sponge for brush box (D-4213) 3 3/4" x 1 1/2" x 1 5/8" wet cut 10.00
Sample Tray and Accessories for Models with 10" Stroke Lengths - View Accessories
WA-2205 Test Sample Tray, 18" (Standard) with “C” clamps 630.00
Accessories for 18" Sample Tray
WA-2230 Lilly Frame, 17.75" (Standard) 523.00
WA-2235 Glass Plate, 17.75" (Standard) 103.00
Friction and Hardness Accessories - View Accessories
WA-2225 Friction Boat (same as Abrasion Boat) 562.00
WA-2227 Friction Boat Auxiliary Weight 365.00
Sample Tray and Accessories For Models with 12" Stroke Lengths
WA-2207 Test Sample Tray, 24" (Long) with “C” clamps 711.00
Accessories for 24" Sample Tray
WA-2233 Lilly Frame, 23.75" (Long) 564.00
WA-2237 Glass Plate, 23.75" (Long) 103.00
Replacement Parts
WA-2194 Standard Drive Fork (Replacement) 659.00
WA-2280 Replacement Weight Shim for PVC Brush 26.00
Scrub Test Panels - Click here for more info
PC-P121-10N Leneta Plastic Scrub Panels, Black, (box of 100) 284.00
PC-P123-10N Leneta Plastic Scrub Panels, White, (box of 100) 305.00
Materials and Applicators
WA-SC-1 Standardized ASTM Scrub Medium, Non-Abrasive 40.00
WA-SC-2 Standardized ASTM Scrub Medium, Abrasive (See Leneta ASTM Scrub and Staining Media) 40.00
WA-2228 Brass Shim (2), 12"x0.5"x0.01"(ASTM D2486) Set 26.00
WA-2214 Scotch-Brite #7448 6x9 Box 20 Ultra-Brite Pads 60.00


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